Research Paper Example - Immunization in elderly
The elderly people present a problem for the society’s healthcare system as they suffer infections that are more acute and frequent than younger persons. In addition, the aging people experience poor results from infections as compared to young people. One of the major causes of the increased infections in the aging population is the immunosenescence, which is the slow decline of the immune caused by natural age progression resulting to decline in immune response to diseases by both the adaptive and inborn immune systems.
Moreover, immunesenescence affects individuals’ reaction to immunization as exposed in the declined effectiveness of influenza vaccination in the aged, having efficiency of 17%-54% in the old compared to 70% to 90% in young persons.
The natural immune mechanismsconsist of several cellular elements such as macrophages, and neutrophils, which offer first-line protection against microbes and viruses. The function of these tissues decreases with age that may explain the increased occurrence of digestive and skin diseases, as well as an increase in viral and micro bacterial pneumonias seen in the aged. Immunosenescence of the natural immune mechanisms may also give rise to the decreased reaction to vaccination.
Research shows the effect of immunosenescence on several factors of the defense mechanisms. Illustrations of some scientific results of this age-related decrease in defense function are the amplified risk of aged individuals to yield to diseases and their affected response to vaccination. Physicians identify that,in addition to this vulnerability to, new infection, elderly often have complications in dealing with infections, and pathogens that they have in the past get over, such as flu.
Nevertheless, despite the decreased reaction, vaccination can offer useful defense for the aged, as avoidance of illnesses such as flu, which leads to significant morbidity and death rate in inhabitants, is more efficient than therapy. Moreover, vaccination can have a crucial part in the avoidance of serious problems, for example, pneumonia, myocardial infarction and other heart illnesses following flu disease.